Ancient Civilizations

Second Intermediate Period and New Kingdom

Hyksos rulers are known as the 15th dynasty and ruled Egypt before 1552 BC. But, there were many semi-independent kings under the ultimate principle of Hyksos (based on Manetho 16th dynasty) such as the indigenous Theban noble household (17th dynasty) which declared itself independent approximately 1560 BC. The Thebans under Ahmose I (the creator of the 18th dynasty) eventually expelled the Hyksos and reunited Egypt to the next time in 1552 BC which marks the start of the span of New Kingdom. Egyptian pharaohs throughout the span of the New Kingdom again became seen as celestial beings that caused the addition of marriage between brothers and sisters of all royal households.


Egypt attained its territorial elevation throughout the span of the New Kingdom. Pharaoh Thutmose I (1505-1494 BC) who was the first pharaoh who construct a tomb for himself in the Valley of Kings began the territorial expansion that made Egypt a top power from the eastern Mediterranean shore. The territorial growth of Egypt lasted under Thutmose III who had been a co-regent together with his stepmother Hatshepsut till he was 22. Following Hatshepsut’s departure, Thutmose III enlarged the boundaries of Egypt into Syria and Palestine, while Assyria, Babylon and the Hittite Kingdom gave him”presents” (tribute).


The territorial growth of Egypt finished with Amenhotep III (1402-1372 BC), even though a private tragedy broke out beneath his successor Akhenaten IV (1372-1354 BC) due to his endeavour to set up the monotheistic worship of Athon, the disc of the sun. He transferred the capital city from Thebes to newly created city Amarna, however, his successor Tutankhamun (1354-1345 BC) famous for his whole tomb discovered in 1922, transferred the capital city back to Thebes and reestablished the traditional deities and priesthood. Tutankhamun died at age 20 not of violent death such as it had been believed but due to gangrene that was a consequence of a broken leg. Horemheb (1333-1306 BC), the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty finished the private catastrophe, and Egypt once more emerged as the top power beneath the 19th dynasty.

Ramses II

The creator of this 19th century has been Ramses I (1306-1304 BC) who had been picked heir by Pharaoh Heremheb himself. Seti I recaptured the great portion of Syria and fortified the central authority, although the most well-known pharaoh of this 19th century – Ramses II continued his predecessor’s policy and extended the boundaries of Egypt to southern Syria and the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. Under his reign, Egypt attained the cultural, political and financial elevation that signify his construction activities like the memorial temple Ramesseum and temples of Abu Simbel. Among the most essential events of Ramses’ rule was likely the Battle of Kadesh in 1285 which ended indecisively but led in the earliest preserved peace treaty ever in addition to at the first branch of land on spheres of interests. Ramses’ successors were able to keep his territorial profits and political ability although Egypt was heavily endangered by Libyans in the west. Following the passing of the last pharaoh of the 19th dynasty Merneptah (1224-1215 BC), Egypt was significantly reduced by the internal battles. The psychological crisis was ended by the creator of the 20th dynasty Setnakht (1186-1184 BC) and his son and successor Ramses III (1184-1153) who is famous for protecting Egypt from foreign invaders: the Sea Peoples and the Libyans. The 20th dynasty became extinct following the departure of Ramses XI roughly 1070 BC, while Egypt was split into two kingdoms. The period that followed the New Kingdom is often called the Third Intermediate Period.

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