The Growth of This Neo-Babylonian Empire started in the Exact Same Period when the Neo-Assyrian Empire Started to decline. Babylonia under King Nabopolassar of Chaldea hard drive push the Assyrians following the death of Ashurbanipal at 626 BC. Nabopolassar was able to combine different Aramaean tribes under his jurisdiction and has been proclaimed king of Babylon at 626 BC. In cooperation with Medes Nabopolassar ruined the Neo-Assyrian Empire and conquered Nineveh, while Babylonia became the major power in the Middle East once more.
The Medes following the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC inhabited Assyrian land to the top and middle class of Tigris River, while Nabopolassar took the town of Harran which triggered conflict with his former allies that the Medes. In the conclusion of his reign, Nabopolassar left-wing military campaigns and authorities to his eldest son Nebuchadrezzar II that had been appointed his successor. The military effort in Syria attracted Babylonia into battle with Egypt, however, Nebuchadrezzar II conquered the Egyptians from the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC and won the big part of Syria and Palestine to get Babylonia. Since he was named an heir to the Babylonia throne Nebuchadrezzar II ascended to the throne with no problems when his dad died in 605 BC. Nebuchadrezzar II is likely best known for curbing the Jewish rebellion in 597 BC and conquest of Kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem. He destroyed the temple and deported thousands of Jews to Babylon what became called the so-called Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile. Apart from because of his powerful military campaigns that extended Babylonian land to the Egyptian border Nebuchadrezzar II can be famous for his construction actions. He augmented the walls of Babylon incorporating a third outer defensive wall in addition to the famous Ishtar Gate, rebuilt the palace and ordered the building of additional public buildings, finished the Tower of Babel and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon – among the first Seven Wonder of the World.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire reached its zenith during the reign of Nebuchadrezzar II (605-562 BC). He had been succeeded by his son Awil-Marduk (562-560 BC) who failed to win the support of those priests of Marduk and has been overthrown. Awil-Marduk was succeeded by 2 usurpers Neriglissar (562-558 BC) and Nabonidus (558-539 BC). Latter was a boy of a priestess of the god Sin at Harran what likely led to the inner turmoils and his escape from Babylon into Taima, a huge oasis in northern Arabia roughly 552 BC. Neo-Babylonian Empire was in the time heavily jeopardized by the rising power of the Persians under Cyrus the Great who conquered Babylonia in 539 BC.