Ancient Civilizations

First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom

The Egyptian throne was usurped from the nomarchs of Heracleopolis (8th and 9th dynasties) through one-century long civil war known as the First Intermediate Period, although the first authority entirely collapsed. The pharaohs of the 8th and 9th dynasties consolidated their power in Lower Egypt. However, the nomes of Upper Egypt combined under nomarchs of Thebes (11th dynasty) at 2134 BC, along with the battle between both traces was unavoidable. The Theban line was able to gain the help of the nomarchs of Middle Egypt decisively conquered the Heracleopolitan kings under Mentuhotep II and reunited the Upper and Lower Egypt at 2040 BC That’s widely regarded as the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

Senusret III

Senusret III, the fifth pharaoh of the 12th dynasty eventually ruined the energy of nomarchs by substituting them with a centralized government. Following the passing of the previous pharaoh from the 12th dynasty man lineup, the Egyptian throne was supposed Sobekneferu who became the first female ruler of Egypt. Ancient Egypt was following her passing dominated by many pharaohs of the 13th dynasty who seldom dominated over four decades. The 13th dynasty less or more consisted of army leaders or high officials who didn’t succeed to set up their jurisdiction. Quick changes on the Egyptian throne caused the cultural decline in addition to territorial decreases: the Sinai Peninsula, Nubia and Palestine, while eastern Nile Delta has been invaded by Semitic peoples. The fall of mighty central power caused the increase of a rival lineup (14th dynasty) in western Nile Delta. However, Egypt was invaded and subdued by Hyksos in 1650 BC.

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