Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms about 3100 BC: Upper and Lower Egypt which were unified into a single kingdom by Menes about 3000 BC. In accordance with Egyptian priest Manetho who dwelt in the 3rd century BC that the 1st dynasty begins with Menes who made Memphis the capital of unified Egypt. Manetho and a few other sources also report that Upper and Lower Egypt were politically unified in a type of a dual kingdom before Menes several times. But, unifications of Upper and Lower Egypt in Predynastic Period were short lived and beneath Menes started the last stage of consolidating of Egyptian lands into one centralized monarchy. Menes is widely considered the first unifier of all Egypt however, it remains uncertain whether he had been real or mythological figure, while some scholars believe that Menes is really King Narmer. The concept that Menes and Narmer are just one and the same person foundations on the Narmer Palette or the Palette of Narmer which dates from the 31st century BC and according to a Egyptologists depicts unification of Egypt under King Narmer.
Ancient Egypt through the Early Dynastic interval was split into 42 Administrative regions called nomes ruled by nomarchs whose place was hereditary. Egyptian pharaohs had a complete power and were both secular and religious rulers. They have been believed reincarnations of god Horus in existence, viewed as divine and worshiped such as gods.
The Early Dynastic Period was also marked by the development of Hieroglyphic writing which was deciphered after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799. The Early Dynastic Period is frequently considered a prelude to the fantastic era of the Old Kingdom not only because of the centralized state organization, established tax collection system, requiring census, official year numbering, etc. but also because of development of polytheistic Egyptian religion, mythology and theology and because of development of complex artwork and crafts that resemble the later Egyptian art types.
Egyptians at the Early Dynastic Period also reveal tensions towards Countries which came under Egyptian influence for example Nubia and Libya in Later period, while army expeditions were led to the shore of the Red Sea. Under final pharaohs of the 1st dynasty broke out conflicts Over the throne, while the principle of past pharaohs of the 2nd dynasty was Characterized by political and religious conflicts that threatened The integrity of Egypt. However, the last pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty Khasekhemwy (d. 2686) managed to end the civil war.