Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms about 3100 BC: Upper and Lower Egypt that was merged into one nation by Menes roughly 3000 BC. In accordance with Egyptian priest Manetho who dwelt in the 3rd century BC that the 1st dynasty begins with Menes who left Memphis the capital of unified Egypt. Manetho and a few other resources also report that Upper and Lower Egypt were united in the shape of another kingdom before Menes a few times. But, unification of Upper and Lower Egypt at Predynastic Period were short-lived and under Menes started the last stage of consolidating of lands into one centralized monarchy. Menes is widely regarded as the first unifier of Egypt, but it remains unclear if he had been a mythological figure, although some scholars feel that Menes is King Narmer. The concept that Menes and Narmer would be the same individual foundations on the Narmer Palette or the Palette of Narmer which goes by the 31st century BC and based on a Egyptologists depicts unification of Egypt under King Narmer.
Historical Egypt through the Early Dynastic interval was split into 42 administrative areas called nomes dominated by nomarchs whose place was hereditary. Egyptian pharaohs had complete power and so were both secular and spiritual rulers. They have been believed reincarnations of god Horus in existence, seen as celestial and worshiped such as gods.
The Early Dynastic Period was also indicated with the creation of hieroglyphic writing that was rectified following the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799. The Early Dynastic Period is frequently considered a prelude to the extreme age of the Old Kingdom not merely due to the centralized state association. Launched tax collection system, taking the census, official year numbering, etc., also due to the development of polytheistic Egyptian religion, mythology and theology and due to the expansion of elaborate artwork and crafts that resemble the Egyptian art types.
Egyptians at the Early Dynastic Period also reveal tensions towards nations which came under Egyptian influence, for example, Nubia and Libya at the subsequent period, while army expeditions were led to the shore of the Red Sea. Under last pharaohs of the 1st dynasty broke out conflicts over the throne, although the principle of past pharaohs of the 2nd dynasty was characterized by religious and political disputes that threatened the integrity of Egypt.